Though khat chewing has become a common practiceamong high school, college and university students in ethiopia, few studies have assessed the prevalence and associated factors. Khat is a flowering plant native to tropical east africa and the arabian peninsula. The plant is grown commercially in kenya, oman, yemen and ethiopia khat is a shrub. Prevalence of catha edulis khat chewing and its associated. Other names of khat are qat, qat, kat, kath, gat, chat, tschat ethiopia, miraa kenya, murungu. Khat catha edulis is a flowering shrub native to east africa and the arabian peninsula. Determine the prevalence and related consequence of khat chewing among students in college of health sciences, mekelle university, mekelle city 2011. The cultural tradition of chewing khat, a leaf that is a mild narcotic, is on the rise in ethiopia. Attempts, albeit unsuccessful, have been made to link the use of khat. Importation of khat leaves from ethiopia, kenya and cambodia to hong kong as a general alert from the hong kong customs, they would like to draw you attention to a prevailing trend of drug trafficking in hong kong.
Although there have been many small scale studies, very limited national information has been available in the general population. Khat chewing among ethiopian university students a. To ban or not to ban foreign ban challenges khat export, while govt remains indifferent. Khat leaves have an astringent taste and have an aromatic odour.
Components of agricultural landscapes in khatgrowing regions of ethiopia and their. Kassa echoes the findings of previous studies that have shown khat production and distribution now support the livelihoods of millions of ethiopians. Khat expansion and forest decline in wondo genet, ethiopia. Hence the ethiopian government looks on khat as a useful exportable product to other countries, bringing in sorely need foreign currency, the access to which presents a perennial problem in ethiopia. The following chart summarizes the legal status of khat catha edulis, also known as kat, qat, chat, and miraa, a plant whose leaves have a stimulant effect when chewed, in seven jurisdictions. The role of women in the production and sale of khat is often overlooked. Khat khat catha edulis, a psychostimulant sub stance, is thought to be the second most widely used substance in ethiopia. There is inadequate information regarding their khat chewing practices and knowledge on oral health effects in kenya. Khat chewing practice and associated factors among adults. In ethiopia, study findings regarding the prevalence of khat chewing were highly dispersed and inconsistent. Even in regions like tigray, where the plant has been banned, cultivation and usage continues and attempts to replace khat with cash crops like coffee have failed. Khat definition is a shrub catha edulis of the stafftree family that is cultivated in the middle east and africa for its leaves and buds which are the source of a habituating stimulant when chewed or used as a tea. In the traditional context, khat is used in ritual and habitual ways that exhibit its cultural embeddedness.
About half of ethiopia s youth are thought to chew khat, a psychotropic leaf. Most often the fresh leaves and shoots are chewed, although it can also be made into a tea or paste. A controversial land use and livelihood change scenario 150 outstanding cup quality 1. Khat is now one of ethiopia s largest crops by area of cultivation, the countrys second largest export earner, and an essential source of income for millions of ethiopian farmers. Khat chewing practice renders certain influence on physical and psychological well being of the community and it can cause more serious adverse psychiatric, cardiovascular, dental and gastrointestinal effects. About a third of the production is exported to djibouti and somalia, but the. Khat is one of the many names for the plant catha edulis. The habit of khat consumption is a deeply rooted social and cultural tra dition in yemen, ethiopia, somalia, and djibouti. Worldwide, it is estimated that 10 million people consume khat daily. Khat or qat is a drug found in the leaves of a wild, east african shrub called catha edulis, which contains the central nervous system stimulant cathinone. Khat chewing among ethiopian university students a growing.
If the file has been modified from its original state, some details such as the timestamp may not fully reflect those of the original file. Although, anyone who has the intention to grow khat, may do so using seeds. Khat is harvested throughout the year and grows mainly in countries bordering the red sea and along the east coast of africa including ethiopia, kenya, yemen, somalia, sudan, south africa and madagascar. When grown commercially, the shrubs grow to a size of about 5m, in the wild they can reach about 20m. Uses, side effects, interactions, dosage, and warning. Open access protocol prevalence and associated factors of. Attempts, albeit unsuccessful, have been made to link the use of khat with serious health issues such as psychosis, insomnia, paranoia, and depression. Ethiopia is thought to be the country of origin of khat use 5. Introduction khat catha edulis is an evergreen shrub that is planted and chewed in eastern through southern parts of africa and the arabian peninsula 1. We used a community based crosssectional data collected in 2015 as part of the national steps survey on ncd risk factors. Ethiopia is the worlds largest producer of khat, which is the countrys fastest growing export. It is believed that khat cultivation originated in ethiopia, and was imported to djibouti, somalia, kenya, uganda, tanzania, zimbabwe, zambia, south africa and yemen. It includes information regarding the legality of khat in each jurisdiction and, where it is banned, the applicable penalties.
Officials consider such widespread use of the drug, blamed on a lack of work, a huge problem for the country. Khat chewing is met with different sociocultural, as well as legal perspectives and practices in different countries. Its true that in most of ethiopia consumption of qatchatmiraa is much lower than in yemen. However, the lack of consistency in the methods and instruments used in different studies limits the ability to compare population groups and to monitor changes over time. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and identify factors associated with khat chewing among ethiopian university students. Khat is consumed by students when they wish to study for long hours especially during examination periods 12. Jan 31, 2020 khat arabi pdf we are the largest arabic online bookstore in south east asia, with more than titles from more than publishers in fiqh, hadeeth, aqidah, philosophy. Khat refers to the leaves and the young shoots of the 520 m high tree catha edulis forsk. Many different compounds are found in khat including alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids, sterols, glycosides, tannins, amino acids, vitamins and minerals 911. Background khat chewing has become a highly prevalent practice and a growing public health concern in ethiopia. Khat catha edulis is commonly chewed for its psychostimulant and euphorigenic effects in africa and the arabian peninsula. Khat, qat, kat, chat, miraa, quaadka september 2019. Jul 28, 2017 a trader carries bundles of khat chat for the market hewan semon addis abeba, july 272017 increasingly popular among the youth of addis abeba, khat, commonly known as chat by ethiopians, is a controversial perishable stimulant.
According to applicable tax laws or secondary sources, khat appears to be legal in djibouti, ethiopia, kenya, somalia, and yemen, but is banned in jordan. Coffee and khat are largely grown in small agroforestry and intercropped. Although there was a murmur of khat chewing among high school students in ataye high and preparatory school, the magnitude. The eastern part of ethiopia is generally known for its cash crop production, predominantly khat and coffee, and food crop deficit 1. In one of the administrative zones of ethiopia, a populationbased. Before beginnings of 21st century, only limited amount of khat was chewed in ethiopia for socialization and religious purpose. Pdf prevalence of khat chewing and associated factors in. Khat is an ever green plant that grows mainly in ethiopia, ke nya, yemen, and at high altitudes in south. The khat plant is known by a variety of names, such as qat and gat in yemen, qaat and jaad in somalia, and chat in ethiopia. It has widespread use in somalia, djibouti, ethiopia, and parts of kenya, and is particularly popular in yemen. This study aimed to identify factors associated with khat chewing practice among ethiopian adults.
Chewing khat increasingly popular among ethiopians voice. Individuals of east african and middle eastern descent are mot often responsible for the importation, distribution, possession, and use of khat in the united states. Importation of khat leaves from ethiopia, kenya and. The east african nation is one of the worlds chief exporters of the crop, earning hundreds of. Khat expansion and forest decline in wondo genet, ethiopia article pdf available in geografiska annaler series b human geography 902. Objective to describe the khat chewing practices and knowledge of oral health effects among. Ethiopia s hararge region is the main area for cultivation of the crop. Pdf on oct 31, 2018, mekuria wuletaw and others published public discourse on khat catha edulis production in ethiopia. Many literatures agree t hat it is native to ethiopia.
Chewing of the leaves of the plant khat catha edulis. In mekele, the capital of the regional state of tigray in northern ethiopia, a stateoftheart drug rehab center has helped him to give up all his addictions, including that of khat. This file contains additional information such as exif metadata which may have been added by the digital camera, scanner, or software program used to create or digitize it. Khat is from a shrub that has been chewed for centuries by people from the horn of africa and arabian peninsula, including the uk, particularly from countries such as somalia, ethiopia and yemen. Prevalence and predictors of khat chewing among ethiopian. International journal of therapeutic applications, 11, 918. For ethiopias underemployed youth, life can center on a.
Pdf public discourse on khat catha edulis production in. Children also perform dangerous tasks in agriculture. Khat chewing among ethiopian university students a growing concern article pdf available in bmc public health 141. Dec 18, 2019 khat is a mildly narcotic plant that has been chewed and enjoyed socially for centuries in the horn of africa and the arabian peninsula.
Delmiro fernandezreyes, university college london, united kingdom 1 1 department of public health, college of medicine and health sciences, madawalabu university, bale robe, ethiopia, 2 ethiopian. It is also known as qat, qaat, quat, gat, jaad, chat, chad, chaad and miraa. However, how regularly khat is chewed among university students and its associated factors are not well documented. Overview of literature and information on khatrelated mortality. What is now needed is empirical research that identifies the impairment effects of khat grounded in social understanding of how khat. Globally different studies have been conducted reporting khat chewing prevalence levels of more than 20% and different impacts, perceptions, and pattern of the practice. Poor academic performance has been associated with khat. Considered a narcotic in many countries, khat is allowed and very commonly used in ethiopia and more generally in much of east africa, where it is perceived more as a cultural activity than a social problem.
Khat simple english wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Its status in turkey, where it is categorized as a controlled substance, is unclear. Khat is banned in the united states and canada, but ethiopia s central government has no clear policy on the stimulant. Khat chewing nowadays has become an epidemic over east africa especially in ethiopia, somali and southern arab from the old to young, male and female, urban and rural settings. Khat and agricultural transformation in harerge, ethiopia, 18751991. This study was conducted to assess prevalence of khat chewing practice, its associated factors and perceived health effects among communities in dera woreda, amhara region, ethiopia 20. Khat, catha edulis, is a flowering shrub native to east africa and the arabianpeninsula. Findings could help in designing possible strategies to combat the magnitude of khat chewing in the country. It has various negative physical, mental, social and cognitive effects.
The law in ethiopia does not include free basic education or a compulsory age for education, leaving children vulnerable to the worst forms of child labor. The production of khat in ethiopia has boomed over the last two decades, making the country the worlds leading source. Addis abeba, july 272017 increasingly popular among the youth of addis abeba, khat, commonly known as chat by ethiopians, is a controversial perishable stimulant. Ethiopia, oromia, alem maya, chewing drug khat market, somali women.
The leaf and stem are used as a recreational drug and as medicine. It has been widely used since the thirteenth century as a recreational drug by the. Khat cultivation in ethiopia fuels economy, reduces. Another of ethiopias eastern neighbours, djibouti, is reportedly ethiopias most lucrative external market. Khat is an integral part of the agricultural systems of nearly all regions of ethiopia. Pdf khat chewing among ethiopian university students a. In the next couple of years sanaa yemeni capital is due to run out of water completley thus becoming the first capital in the world to run out of water and this is largelly due to the cultivation of qat which is a very thirsty plant.
Acres and acres of khat farms can be seen far into the distance. A trader carries bundles of khat chat for the market. Individuals chew khat leaves because of the stimulant effects, which are similar to but less intense than those caused by using cocaine or methamphetamine. Khat often refers to the leaves and young shoot of catha edulis. Many literatures agree that it is native to ethiopia.
Aug 20, 2002 khat is chewed for hours and users say it elevates your mood and stimulates your mind. Carrier university of oxford the views expressed in this report are those of the authors, not necessarily those of the. Khat chewing practice and associated factors among. Khat, east africas stimulant leaf, is a global business because of kenyas women quartz africa skip to. Khat is also one of ethiopia s biggest export commodities. As a recreational drug, the leaves and stem are chewed by people in east africa and the. A study done on cigarette smoking and khat chewing among college students in north west ethiopia revealed. Prevalence of and factors associated with regular khat. Prevalence, reasons, and perceived effects of khat chewing.
It includes information regarding the legality of khat in each jurisdiction and. Prevalence and factors associated with use of khat. Khat use prevalence, causes and its effect on mental health, bahirdar, north west ethiopia asfaw getnet gebiresilus berhanie getnet gebresilus simegn sendek yizengaw daniel tsehay sewasew university of gondar, psychology department, college of social sciences and humanities,gondar, ethiopia teka zewudie mengesha. Definition and validity of the construct problematic khat use. Methods the study used the 2011 ethiopian demographic. Located southeast of shashemene in the sidama zone of the southern nations, nationalities and peoples region, with a latitude and longitude of and an elevation of 1723 meters. Khat chewing is believed to be rapidly increasing worldwide. Khat pronounced cot is a stimulant drug derived from a shrub catha edulis that is native to east africa and southern arabia.
Khat farmers in its native regions do not grow the plants using seeds. The plant is grown extensively in subsaharan africa, especially eritrea, ethiopia, somalia, the yemen and kenya. In its original subtropical locale of ethiopia and yemen, khat grows very easily into small sized trees or large shrubs. Khat is a flowering plant native to east africa and. Over the last decade khat cultivation has expanded to other regions of ethiopia, and has become an integral part of agriculture in the central and western highlands of ethiopia, as well, says kassa.
Khat chewing practice and its perceived health effects. Prevalence of khat chewing and associated factors in. Further analysis using the 2011 demographic and health survey demewoz haile 0 1 yihunie lakew 0 1 0 academic editor. The issue is left for regional governments to decide. Khat, while illegal in the united states, is legal in much of europe, east africa, and the arabian peninsula. Khat, or catha edulis, is a flowering plant native to east africa which is legal to grow, sell and consume in ethiopia and used for its stimulant effects. Communitybased crosssectional study was conducted by. Khat chewing practice and associated factors among adults in. Dave khat house with an ethiopian mobile phone number, selling the drug chewed widely in yemen, somalia and is currently legal in ethiopia. Aug 03, 2019 khat arabi pdf we are the largest arabic online bookstore in south east asia, with more than titles from more than publishers in fiqh, hadeeth, aqidah, philosophy. Review find, read and cite all the research you need on researchgate. Though studies have not been conducted on the social drawbacks of khat, i have observed the isolation of chewers especially from people who do not use khat colleaguesfriends and religious people, for example.
The use or misuse of addictive substances, such as cigarettes, alcohol, and khat catha edulis forsk is increasingly prevalent in ethiopia 14. Jul 22, 2017 about half of ethiopias youth are thought to chew khat, a psychotropic leaf. Students use it to help them study for long hours especially during the period of examination. Wondo genet is connected to shashamene by way of wendo wosha, by newly improved paved road. Ethiopia is believed to be the country of origin of khat where millions. This particular study assessed the prevalence of khat chewing and its predictors in ethiopia. The khat plant itself is not scheduled under the controlled substances act. The khat farmer, trader, and majority of chewers are deeply tied to the leaves for historical, economic and cultural reasons. It is also known as jimaa in the oromo language, mayirungi in luganda, and as miraa in kenya. While ethiopias khat trade continues to expand, a growing number of countries around the world are criminalizing.
It is a stimulant like amphetamine and the active ingredients, cathinone and cathine, are class c drugs. In this study, prevalence of cigarette smoking was found to be 8. By eden habtamu, ezega news addis ababa, december 8, 2009 a dear friend of mine was trying to counsel his colleague by explaining chewing khat chat may affect his health, personality, finance and generally his social life. In addition to use incountry it is imported into the uk, and sold.
A separate study estimated prevalence of khat use in the general population of ethiopia was 27. Wondo genet also transliterated wendo genet is a resort town in ethiopia. Khat chewing practice and its perceived health effects among. The khat plant catha edulis is produced in certain areas of east africa and the arabian peninsula, and the leaves are chewed for their stimulating effect. The phenylalkylamines and the cathedulins are the major alkaloids. Moreover, many adolescents have low knowledge towards adverse effects of khat chewing as indicated in literature oshodi et al, 2010. However, two of its active components, cathinone and cathine, are classed as class c substances. Khat is now one of ethiopia s largest crops by area of cultivation, the countrys second largest export earner, and an. The estimate of the number of people chewing khat globally ranges from 5 to 10 million people most of which are in the horn of africa and arabian peninsula, specifically ethiopia, somalia, and yemen. Assessment of drug addiction and its associated factor among. The chewing of khat is tied to social and cultural traditions that date back thousands of years, mostly in northeastern africa and the arabian peninsula where the plant is widely cultivated. In many parts of ethiopia, khat catha edulis has emerged from an obscure.300 1318 1275 138 31 606 451 458 1284 737 772 784 537 331 51 17 67 1344 278 1328 316 533 883 41 239 1339 527 920 745 874 926 1393 1232